Allama Shibli Nomani has claimed in his book Sirat-un-Nabi that the incident of migration has quite detailed narration in Sahih Bukhari. I, with due respect and by taking oath of Allah say that whatever Allama Shibli Nomani has described about migration to Madina in his book, has no mention in Bukhari. Now I, with reference to the incident of migration, will present the hadith (tradition) from Bukhari as it is mentioned. Sadly, Seerat writers (Prophet Muhammad (saw) biographers), Abdul Rauf Danapuri author of Asah-us-Seeyar, Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri whose book Al Raheequl Makhtum (Sealed Nectar) which bagged first prize in world level competition, Akbar Shah Najeebabadi (Tareekh-e-Islam), Qazi Mohammad Suleiman Salman Mansoorpuri (Rahmatul-lil-Alameen), Idris Khandhalwi (Seerat-e-Mustafa) and others, All of them have imitated, Waqidi, Tabari, Ibn Ishaq, Salmat-al-Abrash etc. while the correct Hadiths are clear signs of this incident.
Event of migration to Madina from Sahih Bukhari
When a criminal resolution was fixed for the murder of the Prophet, Gabriel came to prophet with the revelation of his Lord, and informed him about the conspiracy of Quraish, saying that Allah Almighty allowed you to leave from Makkah. Those who had migrated to Ethiopia, most of them returned to Madina. When Abu Bakr prepared for emigration, Allah’s Apostle said to him, “Wait, for I expect to be permitted to emigrate.” Abu Bakr asked, “May my father be sacrificed for your sake, do you really expect that?” Allah’s Apostle replied in the affirmative. So, Abu Bakr postponed his departure in order to accompany Allah’s Apostle and fed two camels which he had, with the leaves of Samor trees for four months (that means after the dream which prophet saw about the migration, he stayed in Makkah for four months and also stopped Abu Bakr).
Mother of the Believers Hazrat Aisha narrated, One day, while we were sitting in Abu Bakr’s house at noon. Someone said to Abu Bakr, “This is Allah’s Apostle with his head covered coming at a time at which he never used to visit us before.” Abu Bakr said, “May my parents be sacrificed for him. By Allah, he has not come at this hour except for a great necessity.” So Allah’s Apostle came and asked permission to enter, and he was allowed to enter. When he entered, he said to Abu Bakr. “Tell everyone who is present with you to go away.” Abu Bakr replied, “There are none but your family. May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Apostle!” The Prophet said, “I have been given permission to migrate.” Abu Bakr said, “Shall I accompany you? May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Apostle!” Allah’s Apostle said, “Yes.” Abu Bakr said, “O Allah’s Apostle! May my father be sacrificed for you, take one of these two she-camels of mine.” Allah’s Apostle replied, “(I will accept it) with payment.”
Mother of the Believers Hazrat Aisha says so we prepared the baggage quickly and put some journey food in a leather bag for them. Asma, Abu Bakr’s daughter, cut a piece from her waist belt and tied the mouth of the leather bag with it, and for that reason she was named Dhat-un-Nitaqain (i.e. the owner of two belts). Then Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur ’ثُمَّ لَحِقَ رَسُوْلُ اللّٰہِ صَلَّی اللّٰہُ عَلَیْہِ وَ سَلَّمَ وَ اَبُوْبَکْرٍ بِغَارٍ فِیْ جَبَلِ ثَوْرٍ‘and stayed there for three nights.
This text is testimony to the fact that migration started from Abu Bakr’s house in the afternoon. No other human being was involved in this secret except Abu Bakr’s family. The time Holy Prophet was ordered about the emigration, he immediately came to Abu Bakr’s house and emigrated. Preparation was already done.
Rest of the Hadith by Hazrat Aisha
Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr kept hidden in the same cave for three nights. ‘Abdullah bin Abi Bakr who was intelligent and a sagacious youth, used to stay (with them) aver night. He used to leave them before day break so that in the morning he would be with Quraish as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them, and when it became dark he would (go and) inform them of it.
‘Amir bin Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr, used to bring the milch sheep (of his master, Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. ‘Amir bin Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights.
Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Bani Abd bin Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-‘As bin Wail As-Sahmi and he was on the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet and Abu Bakr trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their two she camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And (when they set out), ‘Amir bin Fuhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them along the sea-shore.
Read more: BOOK REVIEW: SEERAT E BADR-UD-DUJA
In the middle of this, Imam Zuhri describes Makkah’s conditions because neither had he heard these conditions from Urwah ibn Zubair, nor these conditions were mentioned in the Hadith of Aisha. Therefore, Imam Zuhri, referring to other traditionist, says that the chase by Suraqa bin Ju’sham began then. Suraqa’s horse repeatedly stumbled and he asked for the statement of peace. He also said that order me whatever you like, I will follow it. Allah’s Apostle asked him to wait there. Then Suraqa requested to write a statement of security and peace for him. Allah’s Apostle ordered ‘Amir bin Fuhaira who wrote statement of peace on a parchment.
Imam Zuhri then returns to the tradition of Aisha while describing further details. Narrated ‘Urwa bin Zubair: Allah’s Apostle met Zubair in a caravan of Muslim merchants who were returning from Syria. Zubair is Prophet’s (saw) paternal cousin and Abu Bakr’s son-in-law. Asma, Abu Bakr’s elder daughter who was known as Dhat-un-Nitaqain (i.e. the owner of two belts) was married to him. Zubair provided Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr with white clothes to wear.
When the Muslims of Medina heard the news of the departure of Allah’s Apostle from Makkah (towards Madina), they started going to the Harra every morning. They would wait for him till the heat of the noon forced them to return.
One day, after waiting for a long while, they returned home, and when they went into their houses, a Jew climbed up the top of one of the hill to look for something, and he saw Allah’s Apostle and his companions dressed in white clothes, emerging out of the desert mirage. The Jew could not help shouting at the top of his voice, “O you ‘Arabs! Here is your great man whom you have been waiting for!” So all the Muslims rushed to their arms and received Allah’s Apostle on the summit of Harra. The Prophet turned with them to the right and alighted at the quarters of Bani ‘Amr bin ‘Auf, and this was on Monday in the month of Rabi-ul-Awal. Abu Bakr stood up, receiving the people while Allah’s Apostle sat down and kept silent. Some of the Ansar who came and had not seen Allah’s Apostle before, began greeting Abu Bakr, but when the sunshine fell on Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr came forward and shaded him with his sheet only then the people came to know Allah’s Apostle.
Allah’s Apostle stayed with Bani ‘Amr bin ‘Auf for some nights and established the mosque (mosque of Quba) which was founded on piety. Allah’s Apostle kept praying in it.
Then Allah’s Apostle mounted his she-camel and proceeded on. Tribe of Bani Salim was holding the camel’s rein. All Ansar (The Helpers) and Muhajir (Emigrants) were walking around the camel. Each tribe wished that Prophet Muhammad (saw) should stay with them. Sad bin Ubada, leader of Banu Sa’ida tribe wanted to make Prophet (saw) stay with him, Allah’s Apostle said, ’دُعُوْھَا فَاِنَّھَا مَأْمُوْرَۃٌ‘(Leave it, it has got the order). Prophet Muhammad (saw) accompanied by the people reached the place where the Mosque of Allah’s Apostle is located at Madina. Some Muslims used to pray there in those days, and that place was a yard for drying dates belonging to Suhail and Sahl, the orphan boys who were under the guardianship of ‘Asad bin Zurara. When his she-camel knelt down, Allah’s Apostle said, “This place, Allah willing, will be our abiding place.”
To summaries, Allah’s Apostle got down infront of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari’s house and spoke to his family. He stayed in Abu Ayyub’s house for 11 months and a few days. This is the same Abu Ayyub Ansari whose grave is present in Constantinople. In 48 AH, he was martyred during the siege of Constantinople at the time of Amir Mu’awiyah Caliphate.
The incident of migration is copied as it is from Sahih Bukhari so that it is known to our respectful readers that all the characters involved in whole event of migration from start to end is related to Abu Bakr. If Abu Bakr is the travel companion then it is his son Abdullah who is sleeping at night in the cave. The goat’s milk feeder, the companion of the journey and the first writer to write peace statement, ‘Amir bin Fuhaira, is the slave of Abu Bakr. Aisha and Asma who prepared the baggage and journey food are the daughters of Abu Bakr. It is Zubair who presented the cloths in the way who is Abu bakr’s son-in-law. Advice is sought from Abu Bakr, secretes are shared with Abu Bakr, companion in cave is Abu Bakr, migration started from Abu Bakr’s house, and while traveling, ride is provided by Abu Bakr… If Allah’s Apostle had complete faith on someone in this world, it was only Abu Bakr or his family. May Allah bless them all.
Prophet Muhammad’s (saw) Confirmation
Allah’s Messenger (saw) said, “The person who has favored me most of all both with his company and wealth, is Abu Bakr. If I were to take a Khalil other than my Lord, I would have taken Abu Bakr as such, but (what relates us) is the Islamic brotherhood and friendliness. All the gates of the Mosque should be closed except the gate of Abu Bakr.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)
When Allah’s Apostle became seriously ill and was unable to make it to masjid, Bilal came to him and said Azan has been called and the time of prayer has come. People are waiting in the masjid, what is the order? Ali says that I was present in the chamber at that time, neither absent nor sick! But Allah’s Apostle said to Bilal, ’مُرُوْا اَبَابَکْرٍ یُصَلِّیْ بِالنَّاسِ‘“Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer.” Abu Bakr was not present in the mosque at the moment. People told Omar to lead the prayer as Abu Bakr was not present. Hearing the voice, Prophet Muhammad (saw) lifted up his head and said loudly, Allah and the Messenger of Allah do not accept anybody other than Abu Bakr. “Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer.” On the basis of some traditions, Abu Bakr led the prayers for eight days daily.
Ali had said during his Caliphate in Kufa, when someone asked why Abu Bakr became caliph after Prophet Muhammad (saw), then Ali replied, when the Prophet (saw) made Abu Bakr Imam of our religion, so whom our Messenger liked for our religion, we liked them for our world also.
The extent of high degree with which Imam Bukhari has quoted the Prophet’s (saw) migration, all the history books can be sacrificed on this. Saba’iya, Majoosi-Zoroastrian who are the enemy of Islam, has tried failed dacoity on the virtues of Abu Bakr… by planting the story of bed and plan to kill Prophet Muhammad (saw) so that the impression which gets created about the Abu Bakr’s dedication and the honesty should get discredited.
A translated excerpt from the Urdu book “Seerat e Badr-ud-Duja” authored by Maulana Syed Shahabuddin Salfi Firdausi.